Foot pain occurs from distress induced by certain factors in the foot. It is a common problem experienced by young athletes involved in various activities such as running and jumping.
A bunion is a bony protuberance that appears on the outer surface of the big toe when it angles toward the adjacent toe. It is an extra bone and a fluid-filled sac that grows at the base of the big toe.
A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments, which connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the ankle joint or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump. Most commonly it occurs when you participate in sports or when you jump or run on a surface that is irregular.
The Achilles tendon is a strong, fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping. Recreational sports that may cause Achilles rupture include tennis, football, basketball and gymnastics.
A stress fracture is a small crack in a bone which occurs from an overuse injury. It commonly develops in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot. When the muscles of the foot are overworked, or stressed they are unable to absorb the stress and transfer it onto the bone, which cracks under the pressure.
Plantar fasciitis refers to inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that is present at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toe and forms the arch of your foot. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common causes of heel pain. It is most often seen in middle-aged men and women but may also occur in those who are constantly on their feet.
Ankle injuries are very common in athletes and in people performing physical work, often resulting in severe pain and impaired mobility. Pain after ankle injuries can either be from a torn ligament and is called an ankle sprain or from a broken bone which is called an ankle fracture. An ankle fracture is a painful condition where there is a break in one or more bones forming the ankle joint. The ankle joint is stabilized by different ligaments and other soft tissues, which may also be injured during an ankle fracture.
Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is pain around the tibia or shinbone due to inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue. It occurs because of vigorous physical activity such as with exercise or sports.
Trauma and repeated stress can cause fractures in the foot. Extreme force is required to fracture the bones in the hind foot. The most common type of foot fracture is a stress fracture, which occurs when repeated activities produce small cracks in the bones.
The calcaneus or heel bone is a large bone found at the rear of the foot. A fracture is a break in a bone from trauma or various disease conditions.
The types of fracture to the calcaneus depend on the severity and include:
- Stable fractures
- Displaced fractures
- Open fractures
- Closed fractures
- Comminuted fractures
Foot & Ankle trauma refers to the injuries that most commonly occur during sports, exercise or any other physical activity. Trauma may be a result of accidents, poor training practices or use of improper gear. Injuries may also be caused when an individual is not medically fit or because of insufficient warm up and stretching exercises.
Arthritis is inflammation resulting from the degeneration of cartilage in the joint causing joint pain, swelling, and stiffness resulting in restricted movements. Arthritis of the foot & ankle joint can occur due to fractures, dislocation, inflammatory disease, or congenital deformity.The foot joints most commonly affected by arthritis are:
- The joint between the shinbone (tibia) and ankle bone (talus)
- The three joints of the foot that include the heel bone, the inner mid-foot bone, and the outer mid-foot bone
- The joint of the great toe and foot bone